The Action comprises researchers and scientists from 25 countries. Please click on any of the countries to find out more information.
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Israel and Italy
Please click on your country of interest to find out more information about its action members.
Birgit Sauer is professor of Political Science at University of Vienna. She has been speaker of the Graduate School "Gender, Violence and Agency in the Era of Globalization" (2010-2013). She was co-cordinator of the EU 6th framework project VEIL (Values, Equality and Differences in Liberal Democracies), which analyzed policies on Muslim headscarves cross Europe. She publishes on Gender Policies in comparative perspective, on prostitution and sex-work, on feminist theories of state and democracy. She is one of the founding editors of the book series with the german publisher Campus "Politik der Geschlechterverhältnisse" (Politics of gender relations).
Helga Amesberger graduated in cultural anthropology and political science. She is senior researcher at the Institute of Conflict Research in Vienna and lectures on an irregular basis at various Austrian universities. Her main research topics are violence against women (current and historical), racism and prostitution policy. She has widely published on these subjects.
Stef Adriaenssens is connected to the Faculty of economics and Business of the KU Leuven (Brussels campus). He lectures courses in Economic Sociology, Sociology and culture & Economies. Adriaenssens holds a doctorate in Sociology. His dissertation analysed the religious and secular antecedents of the first generation of industrial innovators (1795-1815) in Ghent, Belgium. His main research interest lies in diverse forms of underground and informal economic activities, amongst which prostitution. Work on prostitution involves price incentives for unsafe sexual practices, contract breach and socio-economic factors affecting the size of prostitution markets.
Jef Hendrikx I am a mathematician and statistician. My teaching includes Statistics, Econometrics, Quantitative Methods and Research Methodology. I obtained my PhD in Mathematics in 2000 (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven) on generalized S-matrices and their use by finite difference approximations for PDE’s and solving symmetric band Toeplitz systems.
My main research interests today are in the fields of informal and underground economies and hard to reach populations (for instance beggars, sex workers, informal activities, …). I am quite experienced in using multilevel methods.
Maarten Loopsmans is a senior lecturer in urban geography at the University of Leuven, Belgium. His research discusses the impact of urban development, gentrification and related policies on social policies and marginalized populations, such as people living in poverty, ethnic minorities, young people or sex workers, with a particular focus on the (re)construction of social and spatial identities and identitarian discourses. Besides this he is engaged in Alias vzw (http://www.alias-bru.be/), an NGO providing social and medical support to male sex workers in Brussels.
Magaly Rodríguez García is a postdoctoral fellow of the Research Foundation Flanders (FWO), at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Se has obtained a position as lecturer at the History Department of the University of Leuven (KU Leuven), starting in October 2015. Her research focuses on the League of Nations and its campaigns against traffic in women, prostitution and slavery, as well as sex work and coerced labour in global perspective. Her publications include "The League of Nations and the Moral Recruitment of Women" (2012), "Prostitution in World Cities (1600s-2000s)" (2014) and "Child slavery, sex trafficking or domestic work? The League of Nations and its analysis of the mui tsai system" (2015).
Georgi Petrunov is a graduate in Sociology (2003) and Global Studies (2005) from the St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia. He holds a Ph.D. in Sociology from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (2007). Lecturer at the University of National and World Economy.
Nikolay Yanev holds a Master’s degree in European Integration from the New Bulgarian University (2004). Graduate in Classics from the Sofia University. Employee of the ‘Policy in Higher Education’ Directorate in the Ministry of Education and Science (2002-2006). Expert in the Intermediate Body, responsible for Priority Axis 3 and 4 of the Operational Program ‘Human Resource Development 2007-2013’, supported by the European Social Fund (2006-2010).
Ivana Radačić is a senior research associate at Ivo Pilar Institute of Social Sciences in Zagreb, working in the area of human rights and feminism. She is also a visitng lecturer at the University of Zagreb, the University of Osijek, the European Inter-University Centre for Human Rights and Democratisation, Venice and the University College London. She was a visiting lecturer at UN University for Peace, Costa Rica, and a fellow at the Univesity of Kent. Most recently, she was awarded Endeavour Rsearch Award for her research on rape lws and practices at the University of Melbourne, and she is currently finishing a book on this topic. She has published widely in the area of feminism and human rights, in particular on the women’s rights jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. She has a PhD in the area of international human rights of women awarded by University College London, an LLM from the University of Michigan, an MPhil in criminological research from the University of Cambridge and an LLB from the University of Zagreb. She worked at the European Court of Human Rights, and she cooperates with a number of NGOs on strategic litigation and human rights education.
Josip Šipić, MA in Gender Studies, Philosophy and English and a PhD candidate in Comparative Politics at the Faculty of Political Science, University of Zagreb. He is a researcher at the Faculty’s Center for the Study of Ethnicity, Citizenship and Migration (CEDIM) for the bEUcitizen project (WP 9: Balancing gender and generational citizenship). He has also been lecturing several courses, such as Critical Discourse Analysis, and Gender and Media. His main research interests and publications are in the gender analysis of media contents, gender dimensions of nationalism and citizenship, and the political agency of women on the right in Croatia and the region.
Jeanett Bjønness has a PhD in anthropology from 2013 with the thesis ‘Choosing the necessary – prostitution, drug use and the struggle for recognition among marginalized Danish women’. She is employed as post.doc. at the Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research at Dept. of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Aarhus University. She has carried out several research projects on prostitution, especially focusing on the backgrounds and motives of women who sell sexual services. Her publications have focused on social work, social policy, victimization, agency and the relation between marginalized women and the social system.
Her present research explores the norms and practices concerning motherhood among drug-using sex-sellers in Denmark and among social workers. She is particularly interested in how existing social problem characterizations of prostitution, drug-use and motherhood may affect such norms and practices, and how they relate to a more general social construction of difference. Furthermore, she is interested in the possible methodological and ethical dilemmas researchers meet when doing research in politicized and morally loaded fields as for instance the prostitution field and more generally the area of social marginalization. She is a qualitative researcher and find that proper ethnographic fieldwork can contribute in important ways to the knowledge production within a field full of contradictions and diverse interests.
Christian Groes-Green is anthropologist and Assistant Professor at Cultural Encounters, Department of Culture and Identity, Roskilde University. He has published a number of articles on femininity, masculinity, transactional sex, sexual economies, human trafficking and moral economies of intimate migration from Mozambique to Europe. He is currently co-editing two volumes, one about global intimate migrations with Nadine Fernandez, SUNY, the other one about affective aspects of African migrations to Europe with Jennifer Cole, University of Chicago. He also co-edited Studying Intimate Matters with Barbara Barret (2011). Besides this he has done voluntary work among Nigerian sex workers in Copenhagen collecting life stories and providing practical advise.
Maria Heinskou is a sociologist, PhD., and Assistant Professor at Department of Sociology, University of Copenhagen. She is coordinator of the research group on Culture at the Department of Sociology and board member of the Danish Family Planning Association. She has published a number of articles on femininity, masculinity, transactional sex, rape, nightlife, sexual violence and sexual health information. She is currently involved with two research projects: A project on violence, body and architecture, and secondly a research project on female sex tourism, with field work in West Africa and Cuba.
Marlene Spanger is Assistant Professor at Aalborg University, Denmark. She is a researcher and teacher in the fields of transnational intimacies and migration with a special attention to: sex work and human trafficking focusing on how the subject positions of the female migrant, the wife and the mother intertwine. Other fields of interest are: Global Care Chains, transnational family and marriage addressing gendered, sexual and racial formations. Spanger is engaged with poststructuralist feminist theory and discourse analysis theory.
Hanna Pohla's main work field and area of research is labor market of Estonia and it's influence on prostitution/human trafficking (HT). Working with labor market policy, employers and unemployed has given her an overview of the current situation and its direction. Based on that she provides advice for sex workers for further career choices and possibilities in the labour market. Secondly, at the invitation of Estonian Ministry of Social Affairs she is involved in prevention work of HT and sexual violence.
Johanna Kantola is Academy Research Fellow in Gender Studies at the University of Helsinki where she also holds a permanent position as Senior Lecturer. Her research focuses on feminist theories of the state, gender and the European Union, representation, gender equality policies, state feminism, and intersectionality, and has appeared in a wide range of international journals. Her books include Gender and the European Union (Palgrave, 2010) and Feminists Theorize the State (Palgrave, 2006). As an editor she has published Changing State Feminism (Palgrave, 2007, with Joyce Outshoorn), The Oxford Handbook on Gender and Politics (Oxford University Press, 2013, with Georgina Waylen, Karen Celis and Laurel Weldon), two edited volumes in Finnish, and a special issue of International Feminist Journal of Politics. She is the Editor of Palgrave Macmillan’s Gender and Politics Book Series with Judith Squires.
Minna Viuhko (M.Soc.Sc) is a researcher at the European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, affiliated with the United Nations (HEUNI). Viuhko is also a PhD student at the University of Helsinki (sociology). Her doctoral thesis deals with transnational human trafficking and related exploitation. The study analyses the exploitation processes, the organisation of criminal activities and the control imposed on the victims by the perpetrators. Viuhko has altogether over ten years of research experience and expertise in both qualitative and quantitative research methods and in different kinds of (criminological) topics, such as human trafficking, cross- border corruption, prisoners and crime victims.
Niina Vuolajärvi (MSSc) is a PhD student at the Rutgers University and in the National Gender Studies Doctoral Programme in Finland (UEF). In her PhD research "Precarious Intimacies - Migrant Sexual Labor in Finland", she combines migration and precarization research perspectives to the inquiries of sexualities and sexual labor. Drawing on an 18-month multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork in Finland and a vast interview material, her research focuses on the effects of the Europeanized border regime on the structuration of the field of commercial sex, as well as on the working and living conditions of people involved in it. Niina has compiled a scientific report on the impacts of the Sex Purchase Act in Sweden for the Association for Gender Studies in Finland.
In 2011, Niina co-founded the "Feminist Initiative" a feminist sex worker ally network promoting human rights based prostitution policies in Finland. She has also provided legal assistance on residence permit and asylum issues for migrants in a low-threshold drop-inn for several years as a member of a Finnish grassroots level migrants' rights advocacy network "Free movement".
Marion David have just finished a PhD thesis which articulates studies of historically situated macro-social normative values regarding prostitution with ethnographic work on micro-social health initiatives targeting sex workers. A part of this research questions the problematic nature of prostitution in the framework of a sociological approach (due to the antagonisms it arouses) and tries to clarify ideals at stake in such dissents. The second part focuses on associations who implement programs to prevent sexually transmitted infections, or who offer medical consultations to sex workers in Belgium and France.
Gwénaëlle Mainsant is a postdoctoral fellow in political science at the University of Picardie-Jules Verne. She currently works on statistics about the politicization of students during the French presidential campaign of 2012. She achieved a PHD in sociology in 2012 at the School of Social Sciences (Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales) directed by Didier Fassin. Combining ethnographic, press, and archival materials, this thesis offers a socio-historical and sociological analysis of the police control of prostitution in Paris between 1946 and 2008. Entitled “Sexual Illegalisms and the State. Ethnography and Sociohistory of the police control of prostitution in Paris”, the thesis was distinguished by the price of the Institute of Gender Studies in 2013.
Lilian Mathieu started to study prostitution in the early 1990s with an ethnography of the prostitution scene in Lyon. His doctoral dissertation was a study of prostitutes’ social movements, including the 1975 church occupation by French prostitutes, the International Committee for Prostitutes’ Rights and the French self-help organizations who conduct Aids prevention among prostitutes. He now works mainly on political debates and public policies about prostitution and on the abolitionist movement.
Mathilde Darley is a researcher in political sciences at the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). She has been working since 2010 at the Centre Marc Bloch in Berlin (French-German Research Centre for Social Sciences) on issues of migration control. Her research interests also include prostitution policies in Central Europe and France. From 2014 she will be leading together with Prof. Rebecca Pates (Leipzig University, Germany) a French-German research project (ProsCrim) which aims at examining the interactions between migrant prostitutes and institutions in charge of their control or assistance, as well as the categorization processes that take place within these institutions.
Anne Dölemeyer currently works as a researcher in a French-German project (Proscrim) which aims at reconstructing how different state actors and counseling agencies try to identify possible cases of Trafficking In Human beings for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation, and how they process the individual stories into cases they can work on. She has also published on the regulation of prostitution on the local level in different German cities.
Sharron A. FitzGerald received her BA and MA at University College, Cork in the Republic of Ireland. She lived in Canada for seven years where she completed her PhD. Since 2005 she has lived and worked in various universities in the United Kingdom. She currently lives and works in Germany. By training and intellectual inclination she is an interdisciplinary feminist scholar moving freely between post-structural, geographical, postcolonial and socio-legal theories. Her main areas of research sit at the intersection of issues around human trafficking, sex work, migration embodiment, vulnerability, European Union border and immigration control and the reorganisation of state sovereignty extraterritorially. Specifically Sharron has explored these themes in articles, book chapters and books including an edited collection entitled: Regulating the International Movement of Women: From Protection to Control (Routledge 2011).
Jenny Künkel is researcher at the Institute for Human Geography of Goethe University Frankfurt. She works on the German Research Foundation-project „Policing Frankfurt am Main American Style?” and a political science Phd on the reregulation of sex work in neoliberalizing cities. Recent English publications: Künkel, Jenny (2012): Community Goes German. The Displacement of the Sex Trade in the Name of a Neoliberal Concept. In: Social Justice 38 (1–2), S. 47–70. Künkel, Jenny (2012): ‘These Dolls are an Attraction’. Othering and Normalizing Sex Work in a Neoliberal City. In: Jenny Künkel und Margit Mayer (Hg.): Neoliberal Urbanism and its Contestations. Crossing Theoretical Boundaries. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, S. 189–207. More: www.neuordnungen.info
PG Macioti is an activist and researcher who engages in a number of projects for the rights of sex workers and migrant sex workers in the UK and Germany, including x:talk and Hydra. She recently completed her PhD in Politics and International Studies on language, migration and political change from the margins at the Open University in Milton Keynes, UK. Since March 2014, she has been board member of the International Committee for the Rights of Sexworkers in Europe. PG currently works as health advisor, public relations and peer education coordinator at Hydra e.V. in Berlin, Germany.
Rebecca Pates main areas of work are theories of the state, gender theory and current political anthropologies with a focus on the construction of ethnicity and the regulation of deviance, notably political and sexual deviance (including prostitution). Three research projects are focussing her interests currently: 1.) a German National Research Council funded German – French comparative research project on the various processes of turning people into cases in situations diagnosed as trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation; 2.) a project on Policies and Practices of Policing and 3.) a project on the Ethnicization of East Germans.
Renate Ruhne sociologist and stand-in professor of cultural geography, Institute of Geography/ University of Bern. Major research interests: urban and regional sociology/ sociology of space, gender studies, (in)securities and social control, prostitution (in particular hereto: three-year research work in Frankfurt am Main/ Germany).
Katrin Schrader is a researcher at the Technical University Hamburg-Harburg in the workgroup work-Gender-technology. Her doctoral thesis entitled ’Agency and Drug Dependent Sex workers – An Intersectional Examination’ . She teaches and conducts research on gender theories as well as on issues of intersectionality, labor sociology and social work. She is a board of ragazza e.V. Hamburg; http://www.ragazza-hamburg.de/ and a member of the Feminist Institute Hamburg; http://www.feministisches-institut.de/index.html.
Laura Alipranti Maratou has a Ph.D in Sociology (University of Paris X -Nanterre). She is actually research expert at the “National Centre for Social Research, on “Gender Issues Research Laboratory”. She has participated and directed various research activities : National and European research projects, networks etc She has a teaching appointment at the University of Athens Visiting Professor at the Athens University/ Psychology Department teaching the lesson “Gender relations in contemporary society” . She is member of the scientific team of the post-graduate programme of Aegean University, “Gender and new Educational and Professional Conditions in the Information Society”. She is author, co-author and editor of many books and articles, centered on family issues, gender relations, women’s employment, family policy, female migration, citizenship etc. She is National representative for Greece at COST (EC, European Cooperation in Science and Technology), ISCH Domain Committee (Individuals, Society, Culture and Health) (2006-2014).
Nelli Kambouri received her PhD from the LSE. She is working at Panteion University since 2008 on European research projects focusing on gender, migration, domestic work, transnationalism, sex work, digital networks and social movements. She was at the core of the research teams that coordinated the projects GeMIC www.gemic.eu and Mig@net http://www.mignetproject.eu and has taught at the department of social policy at Panteion University and the interdisciplinary gender program of the University of Athens (THEFYLIS). She is currently a senior research fellow at Panteion University, working on a project on trafficking for domestic labour exploitation and a post-graduate research fellow at Foundation for Research and technology working on a project on gender, science and technology. Her publications include: “Gender migration and violence”, in Alexandra Zavvos, Nelli Kambouri, Maria Stratigaki, eds, Gender, migration and transnationalism, Athens: Nissos (in greek), in which she discusses the notions of violence and space in the narrative of a sex worker from Nigeria living in Athens and Nelli Kambouri, 2008, Gender, migration and domestic work, Athens: Guttenberg (in greek), the first part of which consists of an analysis of trafficking as the focal point of the dominant discourse of gender and migration in Greece.
Helen Rethimiotaki was born in Athens, Greece in 1964. She has studied Law in the Law School of Athens University. She has made her PhD in France, at the Law Department of Pantéon-Assas (Paris II) University about medical deontology and bioethics from a perspective of Sociology of Law (with honorable distinction). She is a lawyer, member of Athens Lawyers’ chamber. In 2012 she became Assistant Professor in the Law School of Athens University. Her main topics of research are Biomedicine and Information & Communication Technologies as fields of social relations regulated by the entanglement of rules and institutions of State Law and auto-regulation systems. She has also studied the relationship between Law and Politics in European Union and E.U.’s legal order with the national ones. At the moment she is studying the evolution trends of Greek Family Law in relation to the transformations of family and its alternative forms.
Paul Ryan's research is located within the sociology of personal life. He has undertaken funded research projects documenting changes to intimate family life in Ireland between 1963-80 (Irish Research Council Award 2007-09), an exploration of the risk environment of drug using sex workers in Dublin (National Advisory Committee on Drugs 2009) and documenting the history of the LGBTI movement in Ireland. He has published widely in national and international peer reviewed journals and is currently writing about sexual citizenship exclusions.
Eilís Ward is lecturer in the School of Political Science and Sociology, NUI Galway where her teaching includes International Relations, Feminist Theory and a 3 BA module on Sex trafficking, Prostitution and the State. She has been researching prostitution and sex trafficking in Ireland for ten years and has delivered many papers at international and national conferences, both academic and policy orientated, on the topic. With Dr. Gillian Wylie (TCD, Dublin), she published the first baseline study of sex trafficking into Ireland (Ward and Wylie 2007). A pending publication (Ward and Wylie 2014) theorises researching this topic in the context of contested public discourses and domain domination and draws on that decade of scholarly experience. Dr. Ward’s second research interest in Buddhist social theory and she teachers a BA module entitled Buddhism, Politics and Society.
Shulamit Almog is a full professor at the University of Haifa, faculty of Law. One of her y main research focuses is prostitution. She has extensively published on prostitution and law, and she is active in
various public projects in regard to prostitution. She is a member of The Israeli Ministry of Justice Committee regarding National Award for Combating Trafficking in Persons, broadcasted a series of lectures on legal and cultural aspects of prostitution on Israeli Radio , and following it published a book (Prostitution: Cultural and Legal Aspects). During last year She initiated and taught an innovative workshop for our graduate students in Haifa. The purpose was to prepare a working paper addressing prostitution from various legal perspectives (constitutional, contract and labor law, criminal law , tort law and international law) in order to reach a new legal conceptualization and normative model, that was presented and debated in the Israeli Paliament. She also apeared before the Israeli Parliament, participating in deliberations in regard to prostitution.
Chiara Bertone in Assistant Professor in Sociology of the Family at the University of East PIedmont, Italy. She holds a Ph.D. in Women's and Gander Studies in the Social Sciences from Aalborg University, Denmark. Her main interests lie in sexuality and family change, explored from a gender perspective. She has worked on prostitution policies, on non-heterosexual experiences and family relations, also coordinating a European project on the families of origin of gay and lesbian people, and on developing critical approaches to heterosexuality, in particular in relation to masculinity. She is currently involved in a project on the medicalisation of male sexuality in Italy.
Daniella Danna is a sociologist, researcher and lecturer, at the University of Milan. She is the author of various books and articles mainly on gender issues (violence against women, prostitution policy, GLBT issues, population and procreation). Her articles and book chapters have appeared in different languages, while her only book in English has just come out: Contract Children. Questioning surrogacy (Ibidem 2015). A translation of Prostitution and Public Life in four European Capitals is on the web, and another – Gender explained to an amoeba – is in progress). In 2010 she was a founding editor of XXD – Rivista di varia donnità, an Italian feminist web magazine, also readable on her website.
Patrizia Testai works for Defence for Children Italy, where since 2012 she follows international research projects and actions on the rights of unaccompanied migrant children in the role of researcher and editing advisor. Her research activity since 2000 has focused on migration, gender, sexuality, and human trafficking. She holds a PhD on slavery and the Italian sex industry, which, among other things, analysed the changing legal and moral landscape of prostitution as a field that has attracted renewed media and government attention since it has been linked to ‘trafficking’ and migrant prostitution. She has carried out research and voluntary work in Italy on the application of the law to protect and assist migrant prostitutes defined as ‘victims of trafficking’, and has spent over 1 year working in an HIV prevention project within the red light district of Catania (Sicily). She is interested in the changing landscape of prostitution spaces as a consequence of the law and of sex workers’ resistance to it. She is an associate of the ICEMiC - Identities, Citizenship, Equality and Migration Centre of the University of Nottingham.
Cesare Di Feliciantonio is enrolled in a joint PhD program in Geography between Sapienza- University of Rome and KU Leuven focused on the (re)emergence of squatting in Rome and Barcelona since the eruption of the current debt and financial crisis. Beyond this interest on the relation between social movements and political economy, his work presents a major concern on geographies of sexualities, notably the neoliberal urban governance of sexual dissidence in Rome (firstly homosexualities and sex work). He has previously worked for the Roxanne project, held by a network of NGOs in Rome and funded by the municipality to research and provide basic assistance services to street sex workers. Cesare is also a queer activist engaged in the Roman LGBT politics for several years, having been part of several collectives and networks.
Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom
Please click on your country of interest to find out more information about its action members.
Trevor Calafato before joining the University of Malta's Dept. of Criminology, Dr Calafato was a probation officer for around six years. Dr Calafato was the health, safety and security representative within the Probation Services. Dr Calafato read for his undergraduate degree and Post-graduate Diploma in Probation Services at the University of Malta. Subsequently he followed an M.Sc. in Security and Risk Management from the University of Leicester, U.K. The dissertation of the M.Sc. focused on the preventions and possible reactions of emergency and security services to respond effectively to a major terrorist incident in Malta, whilst investigating the Maltese populace trust in the local authorities in terrorist contingencies. Later his interest in terrorism led to reading an E-Learning Certificate in Terrorism Studies, at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland. As from 2005 Dr Calafato was employed as a visiting lecturer by the Department of Criminology (then Institute of Forensic Studies). He presented work both locally and internationally at seminars and conferences. He has been involved as a voluntary with non-governmental rescue organizations for the last ten years occupying different responsibilities. In December 2013, Dr. Calafato finished reading a PhD at the University of Sheffield. This thesis compared the current counter-terrorism policies and terrorism research with one of the works of Cesare Lombroso, which was translated as part of this research.
Marie-Louise Janssen is Cultural Anthropologist and lectures in the area of gender and sexuality studies at the Department of Sociology at the University of Amsterdam. After founding and directing an NGO entitled Foundation Esperanza, aimed at supporting sex workers primarily from Latin-America who were victims of human trafficking in the Dutch sex industry, Janssen came to the University of Amsterdam to begin her dissertation research in the year 2000. In 2007 she completed her PhD with the title: ‘Sex workers on the Move. Latin American women in the European Sex Industry’, which focuses on the constructions of female identity of this specific group and the personal interpretations they give to their identities as women, immigrants and sex workers. Her current research interests include Chinese human smuggling and human trafficking and labour exploitation in the Chinese massage parlours in the Netherlands.
Ilse van Liempt works as an Assistant Professor in Qualitative Research Methods in the Urban Geography Department of Utrecht University. For her PhD research she interviewed smuggled migrants in the Netherlands about their journeys towards Europe. She has published on the gendered journeys of irregular migrants as well as on human trafficking and ethical issues around this type of research.
Lorraine Nencel, since 1990 has been working on the subject of sex work. In 2001 a revised version of her Phd was published “Ethnography and Prostitution in Peru”(London: Pluto Press). As an ethnographer and qualitative researcher she also work on other issues concerning gender, sexuality and methodology/epistemology. The later has resulted in different publications concerning feminist epistemological ideals and their complexities: In 2005 the article “Feeling Gender Speak: Intersubjectivity and Fieldwork Practice with women who Prostitute in Lima, Peru” appeared in the European Journal of Women Studies, and in 2014 the article “Situating reflexivity: Voices, positionalities and representations in feminist ethnographic texts” was published in Women’s Studies International Forum. Presently, she is conducting research in the Netherlands as part of a research project funded by the Dutch Global Science Foundation (WOTRO), entitled “Doubly vulnerable? The impact of migration legislation, trafficking discourses and transnational networks on the social and political inclusion of migrant sex workers in The Netherlands and South Africa”. In this research she is studying on the one hand, the daily experiences of practice of service and health providers and law enforcers in their work with migrant sex workers, and on the other hand, she is collecting the migration stories of women who are working in the Dutch sex industry. In September, a new project funded by the Dutch Global science Foundation will commence in collaboration with Kenya AIDS Control Project (University of Nairobi),the International Centre for Reproductive Health-Kenya, the University of Addis Ababa, and NIKAT and HOYMAS- both sex worker led organization the project is entitled : “Creating Opportunities? Economic Empowerment, Political Positioning and Participation of Sex Workers in Kenya and Ethiopia”.
Joyce Outshoorn is Professor Emeritus of Women's Studies at the University of Leiden, where she is affiliated to the Institute of Political Science. She is editor of The Politics of Prostitution (2004), Changing State Feminism (2007) (with Johanna Kantola), European Women's Movements and Body Politics (forthcoming). Her work has been published in Public Administration Review, Social Politics, Acta Politica, Journal of Comparative Public Policy, European Journal of Women's Studies and Sexual Research and Social Policy. She was co-convenor of the Research Network on Gender Politics and the State (RNGS) and one of the project leaders of the Feminism and Citizenship (FEMCIT) project. Her research interests are women's movements, women's equality policy, and body politics, notably abortion and prostitution.
Luca Stevenson is the chair of The International Committee on the Rights of Sex Workers in Europe (ICRSE). ICRSE strives to raise awareness about the social exclusion of female, male and transgender sex workers in Europe, to promote the human and civil rights of all sex workers at national, regional and global levels and to create strong alliances between sex workers, allies and other civil society organisations. The ICRSE maintains strong links with existing sub-regional, regional and global networks, supports the further development of nascent groups and networks of sex workers and provides a platform for the voices of sex workers in Europe to be heard in local, regional and global policy debates. ICRSE is at the origin of the Declaration of the Rights of Sex Workers in Europe which was elaborated and endorsed by 120 sex workers and 80 allies from 30 countries at the European Conference on Sex Work, Human Rights, Labour and Migration 15 - 17 October 2005, Brussels, Belgium. More information about our network on www.sexworkeurope.org
Ine Vanwesenbeeck is trained as a clinical and social psychologist. She is presently Manager of International Research at Rutgers WPF, Dutch centre of expertise on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR), and affiliated Professor of Sexual Development, Diversity and Health at Utrecht University. She has been working in the area of SRHR for several decades as an expert on gender and sexuality. Area's that have particularly received her attention through the years are, among others, heterosexual (power) relations, sex workers' health and rights, the epidemiology of sexual health, sexual politics, and sexual diversity. She has (co)authored over 50 international peer reviewed scientific articles and book chapters and many more Dutch publications. Among her administrative functions were the Presidencies of the Dutch Society of Sexology (NVVS) and the International Academy of Sex Research (IASR). She is a member of various review boards of international journals in the area of sexuality.
Synnøve Jahnsen has a PhD in sociology from 2014 with the thesis ‘Locked in or Locked out? Norwegian prostitution policy and the battle against human trafficking. As a graduate student Jahnsen was affiliated with the Centre for Women and Gender Research at the University in Bergen, Norway. Currently Jahnsen is employed as a researcher at the Norwegian Police University College in Oslo. Jahnsen’s research interests lies at the intersections between social and criminal justice, sociology of law, policy implementation, strategic cooperation and cross-institutional communication. Jahnsen’s research includes ethnographic research on proactive and reactive police methods of units who specialise in the fight against organized crime.
May-Len Skilbrei is a Professor of Criminology at the University of Oslo, Norway. She has done extensive research on prostitution and human trafficking since the mid-1990s. Her empirical research on these subjects ranges from ethnographic work among migrants in prostitution to analysis of governmental policies and court proceedings. Her work often focusses on the relationship between national, regional and international policy developments and governance, and published a book on Ashgate in 2013 on prostitution policies in the Nordic countries together with Charlotta Holmström. In addition to research on prostitution and human trafficking, Skilbrei has done research on migration policies, return migration, gender and working life. She has previously worked at Fafo Institute for Applied International Studies and Norwegian Social Research.
Madalena Duarte is a Sociologist and a researcher at the Centre for Social Studies of the University of Coimbra, Portugal, and a researcher of the Observatory on Portuguese Justice where she has been part of the team in several research projects. She has a PHD in Sociology by the School of Economics of the University of Coimbra concerning the role of law on violence against women. Her areas of interest include violence against women, human trafficking, sexual and reproductive health, domestic violence, social movements and sociology of law. She is a stakeholder in the field of gender equality of The European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) and a Governing Board coopted member of the Research Committee on Sociology of Law and International Sociological Association. She has several articles published and participations in national and international conferences concerning these issues.
Alex Oliveira is a Professor at University of Porto - Faculty of Psychology and Sciences of Education. She teaches in the area of Psychology of Deviant Behavior and Justice. Her research interests are related to gender, sexuality and norm and deviation, mainly focused on sex work. She also worked in health education and harm reduction’s intervention projects for/with sex workers.
Mojca Pajnik is senior research associate at the Peace Institute, Institute for Contemporary Social and Political Studies in Ljubljana and lecturer at the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana. Her research and advocacy work focuses on gender inequality, citizenship, migration, and the media. Her recent books include Contesting Integration, Engendering Migration: Theory and Practice (co-edited with F. Anthias, Palgrave, 2014) and Precarious Migrant Labour across Europe (co-edited with G. Campani, Peace Institute, 2011). She is the author of Prostitution and Human Trafficking: Perspectives of Gender, Labour and Migration (Ljubljana: Peace Institute, 2008). She worked on several international research projects that integrated gender, some of them are: RAGE, Hate Speech and Populist Othering in Europe through the Racism, Age, Gender Looking Glass (EC, 2013-2015), MIG@NET, Transnational Digital Networks, Migration and Gender (EC, 7th FP, 2010-2013), FeMiPol - Integration of Female Immigrants in Labour Market and Society (EC, 6th FP, 2006-2008), In-Depth Applied Research to Better Understand the Demand Side of Trafficking in Persons (IOM, 2006). Mojca has just published her new book: Work and the challenges of belonging: Migrants in globalizing economies, coedited with F. Anthias, Cambridge Scholars Publishers, 2014
Iztok Šori (PhD in Sociology, University of Ljubljana, 2012) is researcher at the Peace Institute – Institute for Contemporary Social and Political Studies in Ljubljana, Slovenia. His research is committed to the problems of discrimination and inequalities in the fields of sex work, politics and private and intimate lives and focused on intersections of gender, migration and work. He entered the research on sex work with the interdisciplinary diploma work Prostitution in Slovenia: Insight into Hidden Population (Actors, Image, Problems and Relationships), for which he received an award of the Faculty of Arts for best diploma works. Since then he had been involved in several national and international research projects, which approached sex work through perspectives of trafficking in persons, policy regimes, migration, new digital media and clients of prostitution. On most of these issues he had been working closely with the COST ProsPol member Mojca Pajnik, with whom he lately co-authored the article Sex industry in Slovenia on the web: between oligopoles of organizers and powerlesness of sex workers (2014, Annales, Series historia et sociologia, 24(1), 143-156).
Alina Danet is a researcher at Ciber Epidemiology and Public Health, Andalusian School of Public Health (Granada, Spain). She holds a PhD in Sociology from the University of Granada (cum laude), MA in Anthropology and History of Medicine, MA in Gender and Health, BA in Political Sciences and Sociology. Her current research interests include health culture and communication, media studies, history of medicine, cultural heritage, patients’ expectations and training, public politics and active aging. She actively involved in the social research field, using both quantitative and qualitative methodology. At the moment she is developing investigation centred on chronic illnesses, aging and social participation and population at risk of social exclusion. She is the (co)author of more than 50 articles and book chapters.
Andrea Gutierrez is a PhD student in Psychology at the Pontifical University of Salamanca, Spain. She has a background in gender studies, specifically prostitution and intimate partner violence. Currently, she is doing research focusing on the social representation of prostitution among Spanish using the focus groups technique. The main aim of her thesis is to explore the organizing model that is behind the view of prostitution, examine what shapes people’s attitudes toward it, which are their attitudes toward buying and selling sex and which is the role of power, freedom and gender equality. She has recently made a short-term research stay at Mälmo Högskola (Sweden) and is going to Amsterdam to make a small study comparing the three countries. .
Susanne Dodillet completed her PhD at the Department of History of Ideas, Literature and Religion at Gothenburg University, Sweden in 2009. In her thesis she compared political debates on prostitution in Germany and Sweden since the 1970s. After a postdoc position in Comparative Education at the Humboldt University in Berlin in 2010 she has been working as researcher and teacher at the Department of Education and Special Education at Gothenburg University.
Ola Florin MSSc (Sociology), currently serves as principal analyst at the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency and has extensive experience from policy work on prostitution. From 2008 to 2012 he coordinated government projects (research, evaluations, supervision, development of professional standards) addressing health and welfare aspects of prostitution, so called sex trafficking and other crime-related issues at the National Board of Health and Welfare in Sweden. He has previously covered similar topics as well as sexual and reproductive health and rights and hiv-prevention for NGOs such as Save the Children and the National Association for Sexuality Education both in Sweden and other countries. His special interests include the ways in which knowledge on social problems is created and used in policy making contexts, victimhood, the interplay between policy areas such as social policy and criminal justice and pertinent authorities’ handling of cases concerning sex workers as parents.
Guilia Garofalo's interest in the sex industry is grounded in research and social action and dates back to 2000. She recently moved to Sweden, after working in Italy, France, the UK, the Netherlands, and Switzerland. Her current project focuses on sex-related services for people with disabilities, and uses ethnographic methods to understand processes of professionalization in relation to sexual assistance, in particular in Switzerland and Italy. She just published in Italian: Comprare e vendere sesso. Piacere, lavoro, prevaricazione, Il Mulino, Bologna 2014.
Charlotta Holmström has a PhD in Sociology and is Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University. Holmström is conducting research within the field of migration and sexuality (Holmström 2010; 2012). Furthermore she is an experienced researcher within the field of prostitution policies (Holmström & Skilbrei 2008; 2009; Skilbrei & Holmström 2011; 2013).
Isabelle Johansson holds a Bachelor’s degree in Social Anthropology from the University of Lund and a Master’s degree in International Migration and Ethnic Relations from Malmö University. Her MA thesis explores Swedish anti-trafficking policy on multiple levels by combining the analysis of policy documents and interviews with practitioners who work with human trafficking issues in a local context. Isabelle also has practical experience from working in a harm-reduction project with focus on migrants selling sexual services in Italy. This experience resulted in her pursuing the topic academically. In 2012 she did fieldwork in Italy and wrote her Bachelor's thesis on the agendas of anti-trafficking measures. In the fall of 2013, she pursued an internship at the International Centre for Migration Policy Development in Vienna.
Milena Chimienti is Professor at the University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland, Geneva, since November 2013 having previously worked at City University London, the University of Geneva and the Swiss Forum For Migration Studies at the University of Neuchâtel. Milena's research focuses on three main areas: First, she has developed a strong research interest in comparative public policy. Second, she has done extensive research on the forms vulnerability rose in the contemporary era studying the lived experienced of asylum seekers, undocumented migrants, sex workers, and people living with a disease. Third she is interested in the individual and collective forms of resistance and resources towards vulnerability analysing the agency and collective mobilisations of people in situations of vulnerability. She has undertaken eighteen research projects in these areas and is currently working on two research projects: one on the transmobilisation of sex workers and irregular migrants and the second in collaboration with Alice Bloch, Catherine Withol de Wenden and Laurence Ossipow on the aspirations, social and economic lives, identity and transnational linkages of Children of Refugees in France, the UK and Switzerland (funded by the Swiss Network for International Studies). Her latest publications include: special issue ‘Irregular migrants: policy, politics, motives and. everyday lives’ co-edited with Alice Bloch (Ethnic and Racial Studies, 2011); ‘Social Movements of Irregular Migrants, Recognition, and Citizenship’ with John Solomos (Globalizations, 2011); ‘Selling sex in order to migrate: the end of the migratory dream?’ (Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 2010); Prostitution et Migration: La dynamique de l'agir faible. (Zurich:, Seismo, 2009).
Rutvica Andrijasevic works at School of Management, University of Leicester. Her areas of expertise are gender and work, migration and citizenship and her work has address how contemporary forms of mobility and labour, such as ‘illegality’ and ‘trafficking’ problematize the relationship between free waged labour, rights and citizenship. She is the author of Agency, Migration and Citizenship in Sex Trafficking (Palgrave, 2010) and a member of the editorial collective Feminist Review.
Rosie Campbell is a sociologist who has carried out research on sex work & been involved in sex work support service development in the UK for nearly two decades. She is co-editor of ‘Sex Wok Now’ (2006) recent publications include Campbell, R (2014) ‘Not Getting Away With It: Linking Sex Work and Hate Crime in Merseyside’ in Chakroborti, N and Garland, J (eds) , ‘Re-sponding to Hate Crime: The Case for Connecting Policy and Research', & with Dr Teela Sanders she is co-editor of a forthcoming (2014) Criminology & Criminal Justice special edition on sex work ‘Criminalization, protection and rights: Global tensions in the governance of commercial sex’. Her research interests are; models of multi agency policy responses to sex work, policing sex work, sex work support project approaches, participatory action research models & violence against sex workers. A founder member, then Chair, of the UK Network of Sex Work Projects (UKNSWP) she remains an active network member, working with sex work projects across the UK & has represented UKNSWP on a range of national advisory groups advocating for policies which enhance the safety, health & rights of sex workers. She led on the National Ugly Mugs (NUM) Development Project developing a model for a national scheme & Chairs the NUM advisory group. Rosie has managed a number of sex work support projects e.g. establishing Armistead Street and Portside in Liverpool, establishing a number of innovative provisions such as the first specialist Independent Sexual Violence Advisor for sex workers & working with Merseyside Police to adopt the policy of treating crimes against sex workers as hate crime. She is currently the CEO of Genesis sex work support in the UK city of Leeds. She is completing her PhD at Durham University, examining approaching crimes against sex workers as hate crime & is a visiting Research Fellow in Dept Sociology & Social Policy, University of Leeds. In 2013 Rosie received an OBE.
Isabel Crowhurst is a Lecturer in the Department of Sociology at the University of Essex, UK. Her research interests are in the areas of sexuality and intimacy. In particular, she is concerned with the shifting and contested knowledge(s) produced around non-normative sexual practices and intimate lives, how these inform and are informed by laws and policies, how they are negotiated and made sense of in everyday lived experiences, and how they function as sites for the construction of subjectivity. She has been developing two strands of research related to these aspects. The first focuses on how the regulation and governance of commercial sex and migrant prostitution in Europe can be viewed as processes reinforcing particular constructions of European subjectivity. More recently she has also been working on how knowledge on prostitution is generated in the social sciences, addressing the challenges and opportunities of conducting comparative research on prostitution policies, as well as the significance and implication of the differential status of prostitution studies in Europe and beyond. The second research area she is developing addresses the changing nature of intimate citizenship regimes in Europe, and how these changes are experienced in people’s lived lives. Isabel is the Chair of COST Action IS1209 ‘Comparing European Prostitution Policies: Understanding Scales and Cultures of Governance (ProsPol)’.
Natalie Hammond is particularly interested in the everyday aspect of, and socio-cultural environments in which, people are living out their lives as sexual and gendered beings. Her main research interests are: sexuality and gender specifically commercial sex, sexual citizenship/ rights, sexual health, sex and health, gender based violence, HIV/AIDS; ICT, digital media and online worlds; research methodology especially innovative methods and researching challenging topics or hard to reach populations. She is currently co-investigator on 2 interdisciplinary research projects. The first explores perceptions of the materials condoms are made from and the second, utilising visual methods, investigates how surviving cancer impacts on sexual life. Previously, her ESRC funded PhD titled Paying for Sex: a socio-cultural exploration of men who engage in sexual commerce, explored the social and cultural landscape in which men buy and women sell sex. Focusing on relationships and sexuality, it attends to the broader cultural formations of heterosexual male identities in contemporary sexual culture.
Phil Hubbard has written extensively on the relations of sexuality and the city, and has particular expertise in the regulation of sex work through planning, licensing and environmental controls. This has included international comparative projects funded by the ESRC, Joseph Rowntree and British Academy: he has given expert testimony to the British All Party Parliamentary Group on prostitution, and his work has also been cited in Australian and New Zealand parliamentary reviews. His publications include 'Sex and the city: geographies of prostitution in the urban West' (1999) and 'Cities and Sexualities' (2012).
Nicola Mai is a sociologist, an ethnographer and a filmmaker working as Professor of Sociology and Migration Studies at the Working Lives Research Institute of London Metropolitan University and at the Mediterranean Laboratory of Sociology - LAMES (MMSH/Aix -Marseille University). His academic writing and films focus on the experiences and perspectives of migrants selling sex and love in the globalized sex industry in order to live their lives. Between 2008 and 2010 he was the Principal Investigator of a two-year 'Migrant Workers in the UK Sex Industry' ESRC project which produced 100 qualitative interviews with women, men and transgender people and found that only a minority felt that they were trafficked. Nick also delivered several research projects and evaluations on the nexus between migration and the exploitation of vulnerable migrant groups for international organisations and local authorities including the IOM, Save the Children and the London Borough of Haringey. In 2014 and 2015 Nick will be based at the Mediterranean Laboratory of Sociology - LAMES (MMSH/Aix -Marseille University) in order to direct the ‘Emborders’ project, comparing the impact of humanitarian interventions targeting migrant sex workers and sexual minority asylum seekers in the UK (London) and France (Marseille/Paris) through ethnographic research and experimental filmmaking.
Julia O'Connell Davidson is Professor of Sociology at the University of Nottingham. She has a longstanding research interest in work and economic life, which she has explored through studies of employment relations in the privatized utilities, as well as through research on prostitution and on sex tourism. Since 2001, she has been involved in research on various aspects of ‘human trafficking’, as well as on child migration, child ‘trafficking’ and children’s rights. Julia currently holds a Leverhulme Major Research Fellowship for a project titled 'Modern slavery and the margins of freedom: Debtors, detainees and children'. She has published extensively on prostitution, ‘trafficking’, and ‘modern slavery’, and is author of Prostitution, Power and Freedom (1998, Polity) and Children in the Global Sex Trade (2005, Polity). She is writing a book on Modern Slavery, to be published by Palgrave in 2015.
Helen Rand enrolled in a PhD in Sociology at the University of Essex in 2014. She received her MA in International Development from the University of Manchester in 2010. She is interested in how sex workers collectively resist and/or support government policies, in particular anti-trafficking policies. She lived in Cambodia, working for an NGO providing refuge to women and children, during this time she became aware of the impact of anti-trafficking measures. Helen has previously worked on research projects relating to alcohol harm reduction at King's College London and with the National Health Service. She is currently the administrative assistant for COST Action IS1209.
Teela Sanders is a Reader in Sociology at the School of Sociology and Social Policy, University of Leeds. Her research focus is on the intersections between gender, regulation and the sex industry, with a focus on exploring hidden economies. Her monographs include Sex Work: A Risky Business (2005) and Paying for Pleasure: Men who Buy Sex (2008). Prostitution: Sex Work, Policy and Politics (Sage, 2009) is co-written with Jane Pitcher and Maggie O’Neill. With Kate Hardy, Sanders has recently completed a large scale project funded by the ESRC on the UK striptease industry. This project investigated working conditions of dancers and will be detailed in the book, Flexible Workers: Labour, Regulation and Mobility in Lap Dancing (Routledge, 2014). An ESRC Follow on Award enabled work with Rosie Campbell to directly influence Sex Entertainment Venue policies across the UK, and the production of an online and Iphone App resource for dancers containing safety, self employment rights and tax awareness information. Her latest book (co-authored with Kate Hardy) Flexible Workers: Labour, Regulation and the Political Economy of the Stripping Industry in the UK (Routledge 2014). Current work focuses on the Internet and sex work.
Jane Scoular is an internationally recognised scholar who works across issues relating to law and gender. Her work is a primary reference in the field of the legal regulation of commercial sex and her scholarship includes original theoretical expositions in books and internationally peer-refereed journals as well as ground-breaking national and international empirical studies, funded by the ESRC, Joseph Rowntree Foundation and Scottish Executive. This includes a comparative project on European prostitution regimes. She has been a Visiting Scholar at the Universities of New York and Stockholm where she researched the Swedish law relating to prostitution. She was a member of the Scottish Parliament's Expert Panel on Prostitution and continues to advise policy in this area. Prof Scoular was one of the proposers of the COST Action IS1209: Comparing European Prostitution Policies: Understanding Scales and Cultures of Governance. This new European research network on prostitution policies brings together scholars on prostitution from throughout Europe to discuss European prostitution policies and their context. Jane sits on the Management Committee and will co-chair the scientific programme on 'Prostitution Policies and Politics'.
Hendrik Wagenaar is professor of Town and Regional Planning at the University of Sheffield. He publishes in the areas of urban governance, citizen participation, prostitution policy, practice theory and interpretive policy analysis. His publications include: Deliberative Policy Analysis. Understanding Governance in the Network Society (Cambridge University Press, 2003) (with Maarten Hajer), and Meaning in Action: Interpretation and Dialogue in Policy Analysis, (M.E. Sharpe, 2011). He just finished a 3-year international comparative study of prostitution policy: http://kks.verdus.nl/upload/documents/P31_prostitution_policy_report.pdf
Jackie West is Honorary Research Fellow in Sociology and former Senior Lecturer at the University of Bristol, UK, where she was also Graduate Dean of Social Sciences & Law. Her research includes the regulation of prostitution and gambling with particular reference to cross-national comparisons. This is part of a broader interest in the role of accountability and technologies in the (re)organisation of work and markets in the new economy. She presently teaches on the sociology of sexuality, with a focus on law reform and social policies. She has written widely on gender and work in the mainstream labour market, including young adults’ employment trajectories, and has undertaken research on the politics of sexual health provision. She is a member of the UK Network of Sex Work Projects.
New Zealand, Russia and the United States
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Carol Harrington's research has investigated the knowledge and expertise which informs prostitution policy. She has analysed how differing feminist research strategies produced knowledge that shaped contrasting prostitution policies in New Zealand and Sweden. She has also published articles on prostitution policy and scandals about trafficking on UN peacekeeping operations. Currently she is researching the turn to “tackling demand” and the export of the “Swedish model” in Europe. More broadly her research concerns the politics of sexual violence, she is author of Politicization of Sexual Violence from Abolitionism to Peacekeeping (London: Ashgate 2010). Dr Harrington teaches courses on sociology of violence, social policy and knowledge politics at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
Alexander Kondakov is Assistant Professor (Faculty of Political Science and Sociology, European University at St. Petersburg, Russia), Researcher (Centre for Independent Social Research, St. Petersburg, Russia) and Deputy Editor-in-Chief (Journal of Social Policy Studies - Higher School of Economics, Moscow). He is the author of various international publications on sexuality, human rights organisations and citizenship with special attention to the issues of homosexuality. Research interests include: sociology of human rights, social citizenship and social movements in relation to migration and sexuality.
Ronald Weitzer is Professor of Sociology at George Washington University in Washington DC, where he teaches a course on the sex industry. He has conducted research on various aspects of prostitution, including clients' relations with escorts, organisations that provide assistance to prostitutes, red-light districts in various cities, and political struggles over prostitution policy in Australia, Europe, and the United States. He co-edited a special issue on human trafficking for the journal The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (May 2014). His books include two editions of Sex For Sale: Prostitution, Pornography, and the Sex Industry (Routledge, 2000, 2010) and Legalizing Prostitution: From Illicit Vice to Lawful Business (NYU Press, 2012). He was an expert witness in the court case challenging the constitutionality of Canada's three prostitution laws, Bedford v. Canada.